Before looking into the causes of male infertility, let us understand what male infertility means. Make infertility is diagnosed when the semen parameters are below standard values, such that it does not support normal conception. Male infertility can be due to low sperm production, blockages that prevent sperm release, or abnormal sperm function.
Male infertility test cost
What is the procedure for performing Semen Analysis?
The male partner has to collect semen sample via ejaculation at the test center. He should have had 2 to 5 days of abstinence to get the most accurate results. If the man is not able to collect at the center then he can do home collection and get the sample to the center within 30 to 60 mins.
Male fertility tests options
A fertility specialist can help you to diagnose the infertility issue and the cause. There are two ways to diagnose infertility. Firstly, the general physical examination and medical history; secondly, semen analysis.
The semen test can provide information on various parameters. The sperm analysis will provide information on viability (ability to survive), motility (the ability of the sperm to move towards the egg and fertilize), and morphology (quality and shape), The male infertility tests can include:
- Leukocytospermia quantitation/Endtz test: This test evaluates the number of white blood cells in the semen and calculates the number of white blood cells per ml of semen. The test is conducted under a microscope.
- Kruger's strict morphology classification. This test indicated the sperm’s fertilization potential. A morphology score over 4% is considered normal.
- W.H.O. morphology for sperm assessment: WHO also has laid down some criteria for morphology for sperm criteria.
- Special staining for an azoospermic specimen: This test is done when there is no sperm diagnosed.
- Semen biochemistry fructose test: This test indicates low sperm volume or infection in the seminal vesicle or block in the male genital tract
- Sperm antibody tests (direct and indirect immunobead): This test evaluates for antibodies(special protein)that fight against sperm in the blood, semen, and vaginal fluid.
- Reactive oxygen species: This test is also done to evaluate the damage done to the DNA of the sperm.
- Sperm DNA fragmentation assessment: This test is conducted to find out any abnormalities or anomalies in the DNA of the sperm.
- Hormone testing: The hormone test indicates the hormonal imbalances of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, testosterone/DHEA, and thyroid hormone imbalances.
- Testicular biopsy: In this test, samples are taken from testicles with a needle and the results give an evaluation of no or low sperm. If a man is making healthy sperm, then there is a possibility of blockage.
- Transrectal ultrasound: This test lets the doctor check the prostate and check for blockages in the tubes carrying semen.
- Scrotal ultrasound: This test allows the doctors to check problems in the testicles.
- Post-ejaculation urinalysis: This is a urine test where the sperm travel direction is detected. If the sperm travels back into the urinary bladder, then the doctor will give appropriate treatment.
Male fertility treatment options
- Surgical treatment can be done for sperm transport issues.
- Surgery also helps to repair the Varicoceles and remove blocks.
- The hormonal imbalances can be treated with medicine.
- Medicines and counseling can help to treat ejaculatory or sexual dysfunction.
- ART Treatment helps to perform IVF
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male infertility focuses on viable sperm being injected into the female partner.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with IVF is an effective treatment for men with low sperm count.
Conclusion: The first step when you plan to have a baby is to conduct a test for male infertility. If you find any abnormality in the result, immediately consult a fertility specialist. Most importantly, quit smoking, alcohol, and soda-based drinks. Adequate sleep, a healthy lifestyle, and exercise will help you to boost your fertility.