Esha IVF

What is Menstrual Cycle and Fertility?

Menstrual Cycle is a process of ovulation and menstruation in females. It includes a series of natural changes in the production of hormones, in the structure of ovaries and uterus of the female reproductive system that leads to pregnancy. In this article, we will be discussing ovulation in detail to help better understand the menstrual cycle and fertility.

When Do You Ovulate After the Period?

Usually, women ovulate around 12-14 days after their last period though some women might have a naturally short cycle. In some cases, the women may ovulate six days or so after their last period. If you have sex at the end of your period, you are very close to your fertile window. There is no time during which you can have unprotected sex and not risk getting pregnant. But in menstrual cycles, there are times when you are highly likely to conceive.

Your menstrual cycle starts on the first day of your period that continues up to the first day of your next period. At the time of ovulation (when an egg is released from your ovaries), you are most fertile. So if you are not willing to get pregnant, you should always use contraception because there is always a slight chance of getting pregnant whether your periods are finished or not.

What is the Ovulation Period and How is it Calculated

Ovulation is a process in which an egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube. Ovulation often takes place about 13-15 days before the start of each period. The ovulation timing might vary from cycle to cycle just like your period. There are times when you might have the odd cycle when you do not ovulate at all.

When trying to conceive it is always helpful for you to know when ovulation occurs and your fertile window. This knowledge can also be used if you are willing to avoid pregnancy. Women are most fertile within a day or two of ovulation though they can also get pregnant in the days leading up to ovulation because sperm can survive for several days (48 hours) inside the female body.

When you are in your menstrual cycle, you are least likely to get pregnant which is also called the ‘safe period’. The first day of your period is the first day of your menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the egg moves from the ovary to your fallopian tube where it stays for 24 hours or so.

Calculating ovulation

If your monthly cycle is 28 days, you are likely to ovulate around 14 days before your next period. Usually, people ovulate between days 11 and 21 of their cycle. The first day of your last menstrual period is the first day of your cycle. Your ovulation might vary a day or more on either side of your menstrual date which is not unusual.

If you ovulate on day 14 you can conceive on that day or within the following 24 hours. Even if you do not have sex on day 14 or 15, you are likely to get pregnant if you had sex on days 9 to 13 because of the long life span of sperm. The following is the probability of your being in the fertile window:

  • 2% at day 4 of your cycle
  • 58% at day 12 of your cycle
  • 5% at day 21 of your cycle

People also calculate ovulation by tracking its signs that can help determine the day they ovulate each month.

Signs of Ovulation:

  • A high sex drive
  • Slight increase in basal body temperature
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Mild cramping in lower abdominal
  • Changes in the cervical discharge
  • Nausea and headaches

Another way to calculate ovulation is to use ovulation predictor kits or fertility monitors. The following table can also be used to calculate the menstrual cycle and fertile window:

How to Calculate the Menstrual Cycle and Fertile Window
S noDay of CycleStageFertility
11-7MenstruationLeast fertile
28-9Post-menstruationPossible to conceive
310-14Days around ovulationMost fertile
415-16Post-ovulationPossible to conceive
517-28Thickening of the uterine liningUnlikely to conceive


Every couple and especially women should have a basic understanding of the menstrual cycle and fertility. This article concludes with a proper discussion on how your menstruation cycle and fertility occur and when you are most likely to conceive.

We hope that this information has helped you to gain knowledge about menstrual cycle and Fertility. It will help you throughout your life whether you are willing to get pregnant or trying to avoid it. We wish you good luck in your future life and hope for the best.